Understanding The Concept of Negative Reinforcement
Reinforcement is the process of rewarding behavior to increase its frequency. Reinforcement can take many forms, including positive and negative reinforcement. While positive reinforcement involves adding something pleasant to increase the frequency of a behavior, negative reinforcement involves removing something unpleasant to increase the frequency of a behavior. Negative reinforcement is an essential part of behavior analysis theory and has many applications in real-world situations.
What is Negative Reinforcement?
Negative reinforcement is a type of reinforcement that increases the rate of a behavior by removing or avoiding an unpleasant or undesirable situation. Negative reinforcement is often confused with negative punishment. The difference is that negative punishment suppresses a specific behavior by adding an aversive stimulus to decrease its rate. Negative reinforcement suppresses a general aversive feeling that increases the frequency of the desired response. Negative reinforcement is used to reinforce desired behaviors, whereas punishment can be used to either support or discourage undesired behaviors.
When is Negative Reinforcement Used?
Negative reinforcement is used to increase the rate of behavior when the following conditions are met:
- You have set clear expectations and communicated positive reinforcement as a positive alternative.
- The desired behavior occurs at a low frequency, and the aversive stimulus is present.
- The aversive stimulus is quickly removed and replaced with positive reinforcement.
- The desired behavior is repeated several times.
- The reinforcements are maintained in the long run.
Negative reinforcement is commonly used in the following situations:
- Error correction: When learning a new skill, it’s natural to make mistakes. In this situation, negative reinforcement is used to correct the mistake.
- Mainlining: When a behavior is so strong that it can’t be ignored, it can often be weakened with an aversive stimulus. The aversive stimulus can be silence, darkness, or anything else that you find unpleasant.
- Shaping: We often don’t start with the most desirable behaviors but with small steps that build up to larger ones. Shaping involves reinforcing progress in small steps until we reach the goal and applying an aversive stimulus whenever we fail to reach the next step.